Why Ecological Revolution?
John Bellamy Foster
It is now universally recognized within science that humanity is confronting the prospect â€” if we do not soon change course â€” of a planetary ecological collapse.
Not only is the global ecological crisis becoming more and more severe, with the time in which to address it fast running out, but the dominant environmental strategies are also forms of denial, demonstrably doomed to fail, judging by their own limited objectives.
This tragic failure, I will argue, can be attributed to the refusal of the powers that be to address the roots of the ecological problem in capitalist production and the resulting necessity of ecological and social revolution.
The term â€œcrisis,â€ attached to the global ecological problem, although unavoidable, is somewhat misleading, given its dominant economic associations.
Since 2008, we have been living through a world economic crisis â€” the worst economic downturn since the 1930s. This has been a source of untold suffering for hundreds of millions, indeed billions, of people. But insofar as it is related to the business cycle and not to long-term factors, expectations are that it is temporary and will end, to be followed by a period of economic recovery and growth â€” until the advent of the next crisis.
Capitalism is, in this sense, a crisis-ridden, cyclical economic system.
Even if we were to go further, to conclude that the present crisis of accumulation is part of a long-term economic stagnation of the system â€” that is, a slowdown of the trend-rate of growth beyond the mere business cycle â€” we would still see this as a partial, historically limited calamity, raising, at most, the question of the future of the present system of production.1
When we speak today of the world ecological crisis, however, we are referring to something that could turn out to be final, i.e., there is a high probability, if we do not quickly change course, of a terminal crisis â€” a death of the whole anthropocene, the period of human dominance of the planet.
Human actions are generating environmental changes that threaten the extermination of most species on the planet, along with civilization, and conceivably our own species as well.
What makes the current ecological situation so serious is that climate change, arising from human-generated increases in greenhouse gas emissions, is not occurring gradually and in a linear process, but is undergoing a dangerous acceleration, pointing to sudden shifts in the state of the earth system.
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This article was written for presentation at the Workshop on Marxist Theory and Practice in the World Today, Ho Chi Minh Academy of Politics and Public Administration, Hanoi, Vietnam, December 16, 2009. The basic argument evolved out of a talk on â€The Roots of the World Ecological Crisis,â€œ delivered as part of the Will Miller Social Justice Lecture Series, University of Vermont, October 29, 2009.
Essays on marxist ecology go here